Effects of chemical pretreatment on posttraumatic cortical edema in the rat

Am J Emerg Med. 1996 Jan;14(1):27-32. doi: 10.1016/S0735-6757(96)90008-X.


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of mannitol (Man), dexamethasone (DM), dichloroacetic acid (DCA) and 1,3-butanediol (BD) in reduction of posttraumatic cortical edema following brain deformation injury to rats. Ten minutes prior to fluid percussion injury, each animal received one of four pretreatments or placebo: Man, 1 g/kg intravenously, DM 3.0 mg/kg intravenously, DCA 25 mg/kg intraperitoneally BD 0.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally (n = 12 per treatment group), or equivolume saline (n = 8 per corresponding trauma group). Six hours after trauma, cortical tissue was harvested. Using a benzene-kerosene gradient column calibrated with potassium sulfate standards, the specific gravity (SpG) of cortical tissue from each group was measured and compared (ANOVA, P < .05). The measured cortical SpG from traumatized animals receiving Man (mean 1.037 +/- SEM .001), DCA (1.038 +/- .001), and BD (1.039 +/- .001) were equal to SpG from untraumitized cortex (1.041 +/- .001), and were significantly greater than SpG from traumatized cortex for animals receiving DM (1.035 +/- .001) or placebo (1.033 +/- .002). Pretreatment with DCA, Man, and BD appears to protect against development of posttraumatic cortical edema when measured 6 hours after blunt head trauma in the rat. Each of these chemical treatments appears effective in preventing or reducing posttraumatic cortical edema.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Brain Edema / drug therapy*
  • Brain Edema / etiology
  • Brain Injuries / complications*
  • Butylene Glycols / therapeutic use*
  • Dexamethasone / therapeutic use*
  • Dichloroacetic Acid / therapeutic use*
  • Diuretics, Osmotic / therapeutic use*
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mannitol / therapeutic use*
  • Premedication / methods*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Specific Gravity
  • Time Factors


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Butylene Glycols
  • Diuretics, Osmotic
  • Mannitol
  • 1,3-butylene glycol
  • Dexamethasone
  • Dichloroacetic Acid