Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection despite prior immunization with a recombinant envelope vaccine regimen

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Apr 30;93(9):3972-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.93.9.3972.


With efforts underway to develop a preventive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine, it remains unclear which immune responses are sufficient to protect against infection and whether prior HIV-1 immunity can alter the subsequent course of HIV-1 infection. We investigated these issues in the context of a volunteer who received six HIV-1LAI envelope immunizations and 10 weeks thereafter acquired HIV-1 infection through a high-risk sexual exposure. In contrast to nonvaccinated acutely infected individuals, anamnestic HIV-1-specific B- and T-cell responses appeared within 3 weeks in this individual, and neutralizing antibody preceded CD8+ cytotoxic responses. Despite an asymptomatic course and an initial low level of detectable infectious virus, a progressive CD4+ cell decline and dysfunction occurred within 2 years. Although vaccination elicited immunity to HIV-1 envelope, which was recalled upon HIV-1 exposure, it was insufficient to prevent infection and subsequent immunodeficiency.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • AIDS Vaccines*
  • Adult
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Gene Products, env / biosynthesis
  • Gene Products, env / chemistry
  • Gene Products, env / immunology*
  • HIV Antibodies / blood*
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp160
  • HIV Infections / immunology*
  • HIV Seropositivity*
  • HIV-1*
  • Homosexuality, Male
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Protein Precursors / immunology
  • Risk-Taking
  • Smallpox Vaccine
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Time Factors
  • Vaccines, Synthetic*


  • AIDS Vaccines
  • Gene Products, env
  • HIV Antibodies
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp160
  • Protein Precursors
  • Smallpox Vaccine
  • Vaccines, Synthetic