Objective: Our purpose was to evaluate serum antimüllerian hormone as a marker for granulosa cell tumors.
Study design: Serum antimüllerian hormone concentrations were determined in 16 patients with an adult-type granulosa cell tumor; in female patients with ovarian adenocarcinoma, benign ovarian cysts, or extraovarian cancers; and in normal premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Serum antimüllerian hormone, alpha-inhibin, and estradiol levels were compared in 10 patients with a granulosa cell tumor during 6 to 47 months of follow-up.
Results: Serum antimüllerian hormone was undetectable in normal postmenopausal women and was <5 micrograms/L in premenopausal women. Normal serum levels were found in patients with ovarian cancers or cysts or with extraovarian cancers. Levels were between 6.8 and 117.9 microg/L in eight of nine patients with a progressive granulosa cell tumor. In the remaining case antimüllerian hormone, alpha-inhibin and estradiol concentrations were normal. Serum antimüllerian hormone and alpha-inhibin levels became elevated at least 11 months before the recurrence was clinically detectable. During clinical remission serum antimullerian hormone, beta-inhibin, and estradiol were normal in most cases.
Conclusion: Serum antimüllerian hormone is a sensitive, specific, reliable marker of adult-type granulosa cell tumors and is useful to evaluate the efficacy of treatment and to detect recurrences early.