Binding of Ixr1, a yeast HMG-domain protein, to cisplatin-DNA adducts in vitro and in vivo

Biochemistry. 1996 May 14;35(19):6089-99. doi: 10.1021/bi952877u.


Ixr1 is a yeast HMG-domain protein that binds specifically to DNA adducts formed by the antitumor drug cisplatin. Interruption of the IXR1 gene in yeast desensitizes cells to cisplatin. This effect is unrelated to a natural function of Ixr1, which is to repress the transcription of COX5b. Ixr1 interacts specifically and preferentially with DNA modified by cisplatin. In the present work, Ixr1 was purified from a clone expressed in Escherichia coli. The dissociation constant for Ixr1 binding site-specifically to a 92-bp probe containing a single cis-[Pt(NH3)2{d(GpG)-N7(1) -N7(2)}] intrastrand cross-link was measured to be 2.5 (+/- 0.1) x 10(-7) M, similar to that found for HMG1. Ixr1 binds at least an order of magnitude more tightly to cisplatin-DNA adducts than to unmodified DNA. Hydroxyl radical footprinting revealed that Ixr1 protects an area of platinated DNA that is approximately 15 bp in size and centered at the platinum adduct. The binding of HMG-domain proteins to cisplatin-DNA adducts has been proposed to divert these proteins from their natural DNA-binding sites, disrupting transcription. This hypothesis was tested for Ixr1 in yeast. The protein was not titrated away from the Cox5b promoter sufficiently well to disrupt transcription either of Cox5b mRNA from genomic DNA or of the beta-galactosidase gene under control of the promoter in a plasmid DNA transformed into yeast.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Cell Survival
  • Cisplatin / metabolism*
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • DNA Adducts / metabolism*
  • DNA Primers
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Escherichia coli / genetics
  • Fungal Proteins / genetics
  • Fungal Proteins / metabolism*
  • High Mobility Group Proteins / genetics
  • High Mobility Group Proteins / metabolism*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Plasmids
  • Protein Binding
  • Repressor Proteins / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins*


  • DNA Adducts
  • DNA Primers
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Fungal Proteins
  • High Mobility Group Proteins
  • IXR1 protein, S cerevisiae
  • ROX1 protein, S cerevisiae
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • cisplatin-DNA adduct
  • Cisplatin