Two-hundred Mexican children monitored from birth to 2 years of age in a cohort study of diarrhea were tested for Norwalk virus (NV) and Norwalk-related virus infection. Blood was collected quarterly and tested by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using the recombinant NV (rNV) particles as antigen. Stool was collected weekly and tested by an EIA using hyperimmune anti-sera from animals immunized with rNV and a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with primers in the RNA polymerase region of NV. A high prevalence of serum antibody to NV (85% at age 2 years) was found by the antibody EIA. In 54 stool specimens selected from children who developed a high titer of serum antibody to rNV, none was positive for NV by the antigen EIA, but 6 yielded products by the RT-PCR. One stool specimen (MX virus) yielded a 3.3 kb RT-PCR product from the 3' end of the viral genome. The MX virus cDNA has a genomic organization like other caliciviruses. Sequence comparison showed that MX virus shares 80% nucleic acid and 91% amino acid sequence identity with Snow Mountain agent (SMA), but only 62% and 60% identity, respectively, with NV in the RNA polymerase region, suggesting that MX virus is a SMA-like virus.