Overexpression of Mxi1 inhibits the induction of the human ornithine decarboxylase gene by the Myc/Max protein complex

Oncogene. 1996 Feb 1;12(3):621-9.

Abstract

We have previously shown that the Myc/Max protein complex plays a role in the growth-associated expression of the human ornithine decarboxylase gene. Mxi1 and Mad, novel Max-associated proteins have been identified and shown to form heterodimers with Max which bind efficiently to the Myc/Max consensus recognition sequence, CACGTG, in vitro. However, formation of Max/Mxi1 or Max/Mad heterodimers results in a reduction in Myc/Max dependent transcriptional activation of reporter plasmid constructs containing the consensus element. In light of the evidence that ODC is transcriptionally regulated in vitro and in vivo by the Myc/Max protein complex and the potential role of Mxi1 and Mad as antagonists of Myc transactivation activity, we set out to determine if one of these Max associated proteins, Mxi1, could affect the regulation of ODC expression by Myc/Max and if this regulation was correlated to growth status. Our results show that overexpression of Mxi1 does in fact inhibit ODC gene expression in a dose-dependent manner both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, evidence is presented which shows that levels of Mxi1 are up-regulated during long term quiescence and down-regulated following growth stimulation by serum. These results suggest that alterations in the levels of Max-associated proteins such as Mxi1 can modulate critical levels of functional Myc/Max protein complexes. This can alter transcriptional transactivation of Myc-regulated targets and as a consequence affect levels of genes essential for initiation and/or maintenance of growth.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors
  • Cell Line
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Consensus Sequence
  • DNA Primers
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Enzyme Induction
  • Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Ornithine Decarboxylase / biosynthesis*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Protein Biosynthesis
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / metabolism*
  • RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis
  • Recombinant Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism
  • Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins

Substances

  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors
  • DNA Primers
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • MAX protein, human
  • MXI1 protein, human
  • Myc associated factor X
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Ornithine Decarboxylase