A superficial dorsalis pedis artery was found in two (0.7%) of 296 Japanese feet. The sciatic and saphenous arteries were not present. This artery arose from the anterior tibial artery at the ankle, penetrated the inferior extensor retinaculum and ran forward over the deep fascia of the foot. The artery gave off a superficial dorsal metatarsal artery and continued into the deep plantar branch perforating the first dorsal interosseous muscle. In the second case, a thin deep dorsalis pedis artery anastomosed with the superficial dorsalis pedis artery to form an arterial circle surrounding the tendons of the extensor hallucis muscles. In man, the saphenous artery usually degenerates and therefore the superficial dorsalis pedis artery has not hitherto been recorded. The origin of this artery is considered to be a remnant of the distal part of the saphenous artery or an enlarged by-pass supplying the cutaneous nerves and subcutaneous tissue.