In order to examine relationships between albuminuria, insulin resistance, and dyslipidaemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM), we studied 164 Chinese patients (68 men, 96 women), treated with diet or oral hypoglycaemic agents, on three occasions during a 6-week period. Antihypertensive treatment, if previously prescribed, was withdrawn for at least 2 weeks before the study period. Insulin resistance was calculated from simultaneous fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method. Based on two of three 24 h urinary collections, 87 (53%) patients had normoalbuminuria, 46 (28%) microalbuminuria, and 31 (19%) macroalbuminuria. Despite similar glycaemic control, patients with abnormal albuminuria had higher mean arterial pressure, fasting plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and serum apo B concentrations and were more insulin resistant than normoalbuminuric patients. Albuminuria correlated with mean arterial pressure (r = 0.31, p < 0.001), triglyceride (r = 0.36, p < 0.001), total cholesterol (r = 0.28, p = 0.001), apolipoprotein B (apo B) (r = 0.25, p = 0.003), and insulin resistance (r = 0.25, p < 0.002). These close associations may contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk in Chinese NIDDM patients with abnormal albuminuria.