The complete nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome X (745 442 bp) reveals a total of 379 open reading frames (ORFs), the coding region covering approximately 75% of the entire sequence. One hundred and eighteen ORFs (31%) correspond to genes previously identified in S. cerevisiae. All other ORFs represent novel putative yeast genes, whose function will have to be determined experimentally. However, 57 of the latter subset (another 15% of the total) encode proteins that show significant analogy to proteins of known function from yeast or other organisms. The remaining ORFs, exhibiting no significant similarity to any known sequence, amount to 54% of the total. General features of chromosome X are also reported, with emphasis on the nucleotide frequency distribution in the environment of the ATG and stop codons, the possible coding capacity of at least some of the small ORFs (<100 codons) and the significance of 46 non-canonical or unpaired nucleotides in the stems of some of the 24 tRNA genes recognized on this chromosome.