Concept of an extracellular regulation of muscular metabolic rate during heavy exercise in humans by psychophysiological feedback

Experientia. 1996 May 15;52(5):416-20. doi: 10.1007/BF01919309.


Efferent motor signals to skeletal muscles concern not only the space/ time pattern of motion, but also the setting of muscular performance and through this the control of the current metabolic rate. For an optimal adjustment of metabolic rate during heavy exercise-e.g. in athletic competitions-a feedback control system must exist, including a programmer that takes into consideration a finishing point (teleoanticipation). The presented experiments, using Borg's scale, indicate the existence and functioning of a system for optimal adjustment of performance during heavy exercise and the relevance of teleoanticipatory effects. Thus motor learning includes not only somatosensory control, but also metabolic control. With regard to migratory birds, such metabolic control would have to operate in the individual as well as in the migrating flock as a whole.

MeSH terms

  • Biofeedback, Psychology*
  • Exercise Test
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Models, Biological
  • Models, Psychological
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology
  • Physical Exertion*
  • Regression Analysis
  • Running
  • Stress, Physiological
  • Swimming
  • Time Perception