We examined a Ser-9-Gly polymorphism in the dopamine D3 receptor gene for allelic association with schizophrenia in 133 patients currently treated with clozapine and 109 controls. Allele 1 (Ser-9) was significantly more frequent in the patients (69%) than in the controls (56%) (P = 0.004). The 1-1 genotype was more common (43% vs 30%) and the 2-2 genotype less common (5% vs 18%) in patients than in controls. When the patient group was subdivided on the basis of clinical response to clozapine, using a 20-point improvement in the global assessment scale as cut-off, genotype 1-1 was found to be more frequent among the non-responders (53% vs 36%, P = 0.04). To place our results in the context of previous studies of this polymorphism and schizophrenia, we performed a meta-analysis of all published data including the present sample. The combined analysis shows evidence for a modest association between genotype 1-1 and schizophrenia (odds ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.49, P = 0.01). These results suggest that the Ser-9 allele, or a nearby polymorphism in linkage disequilibrium, results in a small increase in susceptibility to schizophrenia.