Regulation of gene expression by alternative promoters

FASEB J. 1996 Mar;10(4):453-60.


Promoters have been defined as modulatory DNA structures containing a complex array of cis-acting regulatory elements required for accurate and efficient initiation of transcription and for controlling expression of a gene. It is becoming increasingly evident that they also constitute prime target elements through which diversity and flexibility in the complex patterns of gene expression in multicellular organisms are created. The use of multiple promoters and transcription start sites is apparently a frequently used mechanism, whereas at the same time there is considerable variation and complexity in the patterns of alternative promoter usage. This review discusses the use of alternative promoters as a versatile mechanism to create diversity and flexibility in the regulation of gene expression. Alternative promoter usage can influence gene expression in very diverse ways. The level of transcription initiation can vary between alternative promoters, the turnover or translation efficiency of mRNA isoforms with different leader exons can differ, alternative promoters can have different tissue specificity and react differently to some signals, and finally, alternative promoter usage can lead to the generation of protein isoforms differing at the amino terminus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic*
  • Transcription, Genetic