Overexpression of the death-promoting gene bax-alpha which is downregulated in breast cancer restores sensitivity to different apoptotic stimuli and reduces tumor growth in SCID mice

J Clin Invest. 1996 Jun 1;97(11):2651-9. doi: 10.1172/JCI118715.


We have studied the expression of members of the bcl-2 family in human breast cancer. The expression pattern of these genes in breast cancer tissue samples was compared with the expression pattern in normal breast epithelium. No marked difference with regard to bcl-2 and bcl-xL expression was observed between normal breast epithelium and cancer tissue. In contrast, bax-alpha, a splice variant of bax, which promotes apoptosis, is expressed in high amounts in normal breast epithelium, whereas only weak or no expression could be detected in 39 out of 40 cancer tissue samples examined so far. Of interest, downregulation of bax-alpha was found in different histological subtypes. Furthermore, we transfected bax-alpha into breast cancer cell lines under the control of a tetracycline-dependent expression system. We were able to demonstrate for the first time that induction of bax expression in breast cancer cell lines restores sensitivity towards both serum starvation and APO-I/Fas-triggered apoptosis and significantly reduces tumor growth in SCID mice. Therefore, we propose that dysregulation of apoptosis might contribute to the pathogenesis of breast cancer at least in part due to an imbalance between members of the bcl-2 gene family.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis*
  • Base Sequence
  • Breast / metabolism
  • Breast Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Cell Division
  • Cell Line
  • DNA Primers
  • DNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis
  • Epithelium / metabolism
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic*
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Mice, SCID
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / biosynthesis*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis
  • Recombinant Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Reference Values
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Transfection
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • fas Receptor / physiology


  • BAX protein, human
  • Bax protein, mouse
  • DNA Primers
  • DNA, Neoplasm
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • fas Receptor