Purpose: We report on 5 boys with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, describe the identifying characteristics, review the literature, and define the issues of diagnosis, treatment and followup in this rare disease in pediatric patients.
Materials and methods: Five boys 11 to 18 years old were identified with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Preoperative imaging and urinary cytology were correlated with cystoscopic and biopsy findings.
Results: In all patients evaluation was prompted by gross hematuria. Low grade lesions, definitive cystoscopic management and a low recurrence rate were uniform findings. Preoperative imaging identified the tumor in all cases and bladder ultrasound was the most sensitive scan with 4 of 4 cases identified.
Conclusions: While rare, transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in children presents a challenge in diagnosis and followup since cystoscopy typically requires general anesthesia in this age group. Bladder ultrasound was found to be extremely sensitive in identifying lesions, and it may be a valuable and minimally invasive surveillance tool.