Purpose: Although laparoscopic unroofing of simple renal cysts has proved to be an effective form of therapy, its use for treatment of multiple renal cysts or symptomatic autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease only recently has been investigated.
Materials and methods: The results of laparoscopic marsupialization of symptomatic renal cysts in 13 patients was determined 12 to 28 months postoperatively by assessing subjective pain relief, and comparing preoperative and postoperative computerized tomography (CT). Eight patients had autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Multiple dominant (more than 3 cm.) cysts were marsupialized in 11 patients and 1 dominant cyst was treated in 2.
Results: Of 13 patients with symptomatic renal cysts and 8 with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease 8 (62%) and 4, respectively, were pain-free 12 to 28 months postoperatively. Two patients had persistent pain, while 3 had recurrent pain 7 to 16 months postoperatively. All 5 patients had persistent or recurrent dominant cysts on followup CT. Followup CT demonstrated resolution or a significant decrease of the largest and all or all but 1 of the other dominant cysts in 6 of 7 pain-free patients. Intraoperative ultrasound detected unidentified cysts during an open and laparoscopic procedure. No deleterious effects on serum creatinine were observed.
Conclusions: Laparoscopic marsupialization is a safe, relatively successful technique for providing persistent pain relief in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Although the 2-year pain-free rate approaches the 62% rate reported for open surgical cyst resection, continued efforts to improve current laparoscopic techniques are clearly indicated. Persistence or recurrence of dominant cysts on CT correlated with persistent or recurrent symptoms. Intraoperative ultrasound is effective in identifying dominant cysts.