Hereditary cylindromatosis is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterised by the development of multiple benign neoplasms of the skin. We recently localised the gene responsible for this disease (cyld1) to chromosome 16q12-q13 and provided evidence that it is a tumour suppressor gene (Biggs et al., 1995). We have now examined polymorphic markers on every chromosome, some of which are close to known tumour suppressor genes, in 25 tumours from 4 individuals with familial cylindromatosis. No loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was detected other than at loci on chromosome 16q. This observation suggests that the cyld1 gene may be the only tumour suppressor gene implicated in the development of cylindromas. We have also demonstrated LOH using markers on chromosome 16q in 8/14 (57%) sporadic cylindromas, indicating that the cyld1 gene is likely to be involved in the genesis of both familial and sporadic cylindromas.