The approach to the diagnostic evaluation of a patient with neutropenia can be guided largely by clinical history and physical examination and does not always require an extensive laboratory evaluation. Based on the history and bone marrow morphology, most children with chronic neutropenia can be classified and managed. Most patients with chronic neutropenia are free of infections and are able to maintain a normal lifestyle with no or minimal medical intervention. On the other hand, for patients with recurrent or severe infections, careful follow-up and institution of treatment are mandatory. The Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of rhG-CSF in patients with chronic neutropenia. As mentioned previously, the use of colony-stimulating factors has dramatically improved the outcome for many patients with the more severe neutropenia; however, this cytokine is expensive, so treatment should be reserved for more severely affected patients and not given just because the ANC is low. Although concerns exist regarding leukemogenic effects or eventual loss of the progenitor cell compartment driven by the continuous stimulation of rhG-CSF, at this moment, the long-term data available suggest that the chronic administration of rhG-CSF is safe.