The effects of race, household income, and parental education on nutrient intakes of 9- and 10-year-old girls. NHLBI Growth and Health Study

Ann Epidemiol. 1995 Sep;5(5):360-8. doi: 10.1016/1047-2797(95)00033-4.


Nutrient intakes of 2149 black and white, 9- and 10-year-old girls varied by race, household income, and parental education. Of the three variables, higher education was most consistently associated with more desirable levels of nutrient intakes, that is, lower percentage of dietary fat and higher levels of vitamin C, calcium, and potassium. Higher income was related to higher intakes of vitamin C, but lower intakes of calcium and iron. Higher income was associated with lower percentage of dietary fat. After adjustment for income and education, race was associated with intakes of calcium, vitamin C, and to a lesser extent, percentages of kilocalories from total fat and polyunsaturated fat, and potassium. Black girls had a significantly lower intake of calcium (720 versus 889 mg) and a higher intake of vitamin C (91 versus 83 mg). Proportions of the cohort with inadequate or excessive intakes of micronutrients and macronutrients were also estimated. A high proportion of girls exceeded the recommended intake level of 30% of kilocalories from total fat (90% of black girls; 84% of white girls) and 10% of kilocalories from saturated fat (92 and 93%, respectively). Low intakes of calcium (40% of black girls and and 20% og white girls) and zinc (36 and 38%, respectively) commonly were found for girls of both names.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • African Americans*
  • Ascorbic Acid / administration & dosage
  • Calcium / administration & dosage
  • Child
  • Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage
  • Educational Status*
  • Energy Intake
  • Fatty Acids / administration & dosage
  • Fatty Acids, Unsaturated / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Income*
  • Iron / administration & dosage
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Micronutrients
  • National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
  • Parents*
  • Potassium / administration & dosage
  • United States
  • Whites*
  • Zinc / administration & dosage


  • Dietary Fats
  • Fatty Acids
  • Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
  • Micronutrients
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Ascorbic Acid
  • Potassium
  • Calcium