A food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for low-income Mexican-Americans in Starr County, Texas, was developed as part of an epidemiologic study of gallbladder disease during 1985 and 1986. The FFQ was developed from 7-day food records collected from the first sample. In the validity study, using the second sample, correlations between nutrients calculated from 3-day food records and the FFQ were 0.77, 0.76, and 0.61 for energy, total fat, and saturated fat, respectively. In the reliability study, using the third sample, for the 1-month interval between baseline and a repeat FFQ measurement correlations ranged from 0.90 for energy to 0.85 for total fat and for the 2-month interval they were 0.84 for energy and 0.70 for total fat. The high correlations are largely explained by the lack of diversity in the diets of Starr County individuals which facilitated the high agreement between the FFQ and the food records for estimates of energy, fats, and cholesterol.