The radiographs of 10 cases with a diagnosis of neurofibromatosis involving the mandible were evaluated by two reviewers to document common radiographic characteristics. The most common findings included increase in bone density, enlarged mandibular foramen, lateral bowing of the mandibular ramus, increase in dimensions of the coronoid notch, and a decrease in the mandibular angle. The six cases for which computed tomography scans were available, enlargement of the mandibular foramen and concavity of the medial surface of the ramus were seen. In five of these cases, there was no associated tumor mass adjacent to the concavity; instead a soft tissue mass with density of fat was found. This supports the theory that neurofibromatosis may have manifestations of a mesodermal dysplasia.