Ten moderately obese women (body mass index 34.9 +/- 1.1 kg/m2, mean +/- SEM), had previously been through a 3-month weight loss program followed by 3 months of weight maintenance at the reduced weight. A euglycemic clamp for determination of insulin sensitivity was performed on each subject prior to weight loss, and another at the end of the weight maintenance phase. The mean weight loss for the group was 11.4 +/- 2.2 kg. The women were then seen for follow-up weights 12 months and 18 months after the conclusion of the weight maintenance period. All of the women except one had regained their weight by the time of the 12-month visit. It was found that the amount of weight regained both at 12 months and 18 months was correlated with the change in insulin sensitivity which occurred from the baseline study to after weight loss/maintenance. The data indicate that increased insulin sensitivity following sustained weight loss in obese women predicts weight regain.