Steroid control of muscle remodeling during metamorphosis in Manduca sexta

J Neurobiol. 1996 Apr;29(4):535-50. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4695(199604)29:4<535::AID-NEU9>3.0.CO;2-9.


During metamorphosis in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, the abdominal body-wall muscle DEO1 is remodeled to form the adult muscle DE5. The degeneration of muscle DEO1 involves the dismantling of its contractile apparatus followed by the degeneration of muscle nuclei. As some nuclei are degenerating, others begin to incorporate 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), indicating the onset of nuclear proliferation. This proliferation is initially most evident at the site where the motoneuron contacts the muscle remnant. The developmental events involved in muscle remodeling are under the control of the steroid hormones, the ecdysteroids. The loss of the contractile elements of the larval muscle requires the rise and fall of the prepupal peak of ecdysteroids, whereas the subsequent loss of muscle nuclei is influenced by the slight rise in ecdysteroids seen after pupal ecdysis. Incorporation of BrdU by muscle nuclei depends on both the adult peak of the ecdysteroids and contact with the motoneuron. Unilateral axotomy blocks proliferation within the rudiment, but it does not block its subsequent differentiation into a very thin muscle in the adult.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biotin
  • Bromodeoxyuridine
  • Cell Division / physiology
  • Cell Nucleus / drug effects
  • Deoxyuracil Nucleotides
  • Ecdysone / pharmacology
  • Hydrazines / pharmacology
  • Insect Hormones / pharmacology
  • Insecticides / pharmacology
  • Juvenile Hormones / pharmacology
  • Larva / cytology
  • Larva / growth & development
  • Manduca / growth & development*
  • Metamorphosis, Biological / physiology*
  • Muscle Denervation
  • Muscles / cytology
  • Muscles / drug effects
  • Muscles / physiology
  • Pupa / cytology
  • Pupa / growth & development
  • Steroids / pharmacology*


  • Deoxyuracil Nucleotides
  • Hydrazines
  • Insect Hormones
  • Insecticides
  • Juvenile Hormones
  • Steroids
  • deoxyuridine triphosphate
  • Ecdysone
  • Biotin
  • Bromodeoxyuridine
  • tebufenozide