Background: Transplantation of bone marrow from unrelated donors is limited by a lack of HLA-matched donors and the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Placental blood from sibling donors can reconstitute hematopoiesis. We report preliminary results of transplantation using partially HLA-mismatched placental blood from unrelated donors.
Methods: Twenty-five consecutive patients, primarily children, with a variety of malignant and non-malignant conditions received placental blood from unrelated donors and were evaluated for hematologic and immunologic reconstitution and GVHD. HLA matching was performed before transplantation by serologic typing for class I HLA antigens and low-resolution molecular typing for class II HLA alleles. In donor-recipient pairs who differed by no more than one HLA antigen or allele, high-resolution class II HLA typing was done retrospectively. Fordonor-recipient pairs who were mismatched for two HLA antigens or alleles, high-resolution typing was used prospectively to select the best match for HLA-DRB1.
Results: Twenty-four of the 25 donor-recipient pairs were discordant for one to three HLA antigens. In 23 of the 25 transplant recipients, the infused hematopoletic stem cells engrafted. Acute grade III GVHD occurred in 2 of the 21 patients who could be evaluated, and 2 patients had chronic GVHD. In vitro proliferative responses of T cells and B cells to plant mitogens were detected 60 days after transplantation. With a median follow-up of 12 1/2 months and a minimal follow-up of 100 days, the overall 100-day survival rate among these patients was 64 percent, and the overall event-free survival was 48 percent.
Conclusions: HLA-mismatched placental blood from unrelated donors is an alternative source of stem cells for hematopoietic reconstitution in children.