Two studies are presented that investigated 'fear of movement/(re)injury' in chronic musculoskeletal pain and its relation to behavioral performance. The 1st study examines the relation among fear of movement/(re)injury (as measured with the Dutch version of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK-DV)) (Kori et al. 1990), biographical variables (age, pain duration, gender, use of supportive equipment, compensation status), pain-related variables (pain intensity, pain cognitions, pain coping) and affective distress (fear and depression) in a group of 103 chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. In the 2nd study, motoric, psychophysiologic and self-report measures of fear are taken from 33 CLBP patients who are exposed to a single and relatively simple movement. Generally, findings demonstrated that the fear of movement/(re)injury is related to gender and compensation status, and more closely to measures of catastrophizing and depression, but in a much lesser degree to pain coping and pain intensity. Furthermore, subjects who report a high degree of fear of movement/(re)injury show more fear and escape/avoidance when exposed to a simple movement. The discussion focuses on the clinical relevance of the construct of fear of movement/(re)injury and research questions that remain to be answered.