The antimalarials quinacrine and chloroquine induce weak lysosomal storage of sulphated glycosaminoglycans in cell culture and in vivo

Toxicology. 1996 Jun 17;110(1-3):27-37. doi: 10.1016/0300-483x(96)03319-7.


The antimalarial agents quinacrine and chloroquine are well known as potent inducers of lysosomal storage of polar lipids (lipidosis) in cell culture and in vivo. In previous experiments on cultured fibroblasts, chloroquine was shown to additionally cause weak lysosomal storage of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) thus inducing mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS). In the present study, quinacrine was investigated for this ability, because we wished to know whether or not the acridine ring system in quinacrine would enhance the MPS-inducing potency as compared to chloroquine carrying an isoquinoline ring system. Tilorone (2,7-bis[2-(diethylamino)ethoxy]fluoren-9-one) known as a potent inducer of MPS served as reference compound. The compounds were compared at a concentration (3 microM) which did not enhance the secretion of the lysosomal enzyme beta-hexosaminidase (E.C., since this would be an indication of unspecific drug effects upon the endosomal/lysosomal compartments of the cell. Additionally the liver of quinacrine- and chloroquine-treated rats was examined with the question whether the lysosomal GAG storage induced by either drug in cell culture had an equivalent in intact organisms. Both, in cell culture and in vivo, quinacrine was found to be a more potent inducer of lysosomal GAG storage than was chloroquine. The results suggest that the acridine ring system favours this drug side effect as compared with the bicyclic isoquinoline ring system. On the other hand, quinacrine was significantly less potent than tilorone and the Symmetrically substituted acridine derivative 3,6-bis[2-(diethylamino)ethoxy]acridine investigated previously. This suggests that the asymmetric structure of the quinacrine molecule reduces the potency as compared to the symmetrically substituted bisbasic compounds with planary tricyclic ring systems such as tilorone and congeners.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / toxicity
  • Antimalarials / toxicity*
  • Cattle
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chloroquine / toxicity*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Female
  • Fibroblasts / cytology
  • Fibroblasts / drug effects
  • Fibroblasts / metabolism
  • Glycosaminoglycans / metabolism*
  • Histocytochemistry
  • Lipidoses / chemically induced
  • Lipidoses / metabolism
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Liver / ultrastructure
  • Lysosomes / drug effects*
  • Microscopy, Electron
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence
  • Mucopolysaccharidoses / chemically induced
  • Quinacrine / toxicity*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Sulfates / metabolism
  • Tilorone / toxicity
  • beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases / metabolism


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antimalarials
  • Glycosaminoglycans
  • Sulfates
  • Chloroquine
  • beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases
  • Quinacrine
  • Tilorone