The completed sequence and genome organization of OAV287, a serologically distinct ovine adenovirus, is described. The genome of 29,544 bp has inverted terminal repeats that are only 46 bp in length. Many OAV genes are identified by their homology with other adenovirus (Ad) sequences but three groups of reading frames show little homology. One group at the left-hand end of the genome probably represents the E1A/E1B regions. Two others, on the complementary strand at the right-hand end of the genome, are tentatively proposed as the E4 and E3 regions. They are separated by approximately 1 kb of A/T-rich sequence of unknown function with E3 being adjacent to the terminus. Structural proteins V and IX of human Ads are absent from the OAV genome but a new, processed, 28-kDa virion polypeptide is encoded on the strand complementary to the proposed E1A region. The coding sequences for two other structural proteins are unidentified. The OAV penton protein lacks the region containing an Arg/Gly/Asp sequence that, in human adenoviruses, is thought to interact with cellular integrins to facilitate virus entry. Analysis of proteins and peptides in purified OAV identified several cleavage sites utilized by the Ad proteinase. Some of these were previously identified in human Ad proteins, but new sites, some of which did not conform to the known specificity of the human Ad proteinase, were also identified. The data emphasize that this ovine virus differs significantly from other known human and animal adenoviruses.