The study was conducted to investigate whether cervical human papillomavirus infections (CHPI) are associated with contraceptive use and reproductive history. The contraceptive and reproductive histories in 972 women seeking contraceptive advice were noted and screening conducted for human papillomavirus infection. The interview included number of pregnancies and childbirths, legal and spontaneous abortions, and menstrual pattern. Information about current use of contraceptive methods, about casual sex, and history of combined oral contraceptive pill (OC) use was obtained. Women with a history of spontaneous abortion showed a significant correlation with CHPI, as did women who used high-dose OCs when compared with the remaining study population (odds ratio 3.0). There was no association between use of low-dose OCs and CHPI. In multifactorial analyses with adjustment for age, number of lifetime sexual partners, number of partners during the preceding six months and age at first intercourse, the significant correlation between use of high-dose OCs and CHPI remained (adjusted odds ratio 2.8). The results indicate a relationship between female steroid hormones and the occurrence of CHPI. An association with high-dose OCs could not be excluded.