Comparative chromosome painting with individual human chromosome-specific libraries (CSLs) on cattle metaphase chromosomes delineated 46 homologous chromosomal segments between the two species. Continuous arrangement of these segments on individual cattle chromosomes demonstrates a nearly complete coverage of the bovine karyotype and shows physical boundaries of bovine chromosomal segments homologous to individual human chromosomes. Alignment of the available comparative gene mapping data with the homologous segments strongly supports the detected gross homologies between the karyotypes of the two species. In addition to cattle, four human CSLs were hybridized to sheep metaphase chromosomes also, to further verify the known karyotype homology within the Bovidae. Besides its application to karyotype evolution research, the comparative knowledge provides for rapid expansion of the much needed Type I locus-based bovine gene map.