The U.S. Food and Drug Administration conducts the Total Diet Study to determine dietary intakes of selected pesticides, industrial chemicals, and elements (including radionuclides). This paper reports results for the sampling period July 1986 to April 1991. The study involves retail purchase of foods representative of the ¿total diet¿ of the U.S. population, preparation for ¿table-ready¿ consumption, and individual analyses of 234 items making up the diets of 8 population groups. The diets were based on 2 nationwide food consumption surveys. The data presented represent 21 food collections (also termed ¿market baskets¿) in regional metropolitan areas during the 5-year period. Dietary intakes of nearly 120 analytes are presented for 8 population groups, which range from infants to elderly adults. Intakes of selected population groups are compared with representative findings from earlier Total Diet Study sampling periods. As reported previously, average daily intakes are well below acceptable limits.