Cloning and Transcription Factor-Binding Sites of the Human C-Rel Proto-Oncogene Promoter

Gene. 1996 May 8;170(2):271-6. doi: 10.1016/0378-1119(95)00773-3.


We report here the cloning, sequencing, functional analysis and DNase I footprinting of the human c-rel promoter region. The results revealed an 824-bp BsaAI-StuI minimal promoter region with a large number of NF-kappa B, Ap2 and Sp1-binding sites, some of them variants of known consensus sequences. This is the first promoter in the Rel/NF-kappa B/I kappa B family to be subjected to a detailed footprinting analysis for the binding of transcription activator proteins. Our finding of 14 Ap2-binding sites may indicate why the human c-rel promoter, unlike the chicken c-rel promoter, has a strong function and is highly responsive to phorbol esters. The presence of five NF-kappa B and six Sp1-binding sites in turn adds to growing evidence that, in mammals, the promoter of the Rel/NF-kappa B/I kappa B family may utilize multiple NF-kappa B- and Sp1-binding sites for their interactive regulation. Furthermore, there are putative binding sites for the PU.1 and Oct 1/2 transcription activator proteins, also present in the mouse c-rel promoter, which may help explain the preferential transcription of the c-rel gene in B- and T-lymphoid cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Binding Sites
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • DNA / metabolism
  • DNA Footprinting
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-rel
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*


  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-rel
  • Transcription Factors
  • DNA

Associated data

  • GENBANK/L41414
  • GENBANK/X70690