Phaeohyphomycosis due to Dactylaria (Ochroconis) spp. is a rare infection of man. It was first reported in 1986. All patients have had significant immunosuppression. To our knowledge, this is the second case of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Dactylaria constricta var. gallopava in a liver transplant patient and it developed even though he had been receiving fungal prophylaxis with fluconazole. Moreover, this case may represent nosocomial acquisition. In addition, we have reviewed the English language literature of previously reported patients with phaeohyphomycosis caused by Dactylaria spp.