Oral white lesions with special reference to precancerous and tobacco- related lesions: conclusions of an international symposium held in Uppsala, Sweden, May 18-21 1994. International Collaborative Group on Oral White Lesions

J Oral Pathol Med. 1996 Feb;25(2):49-54. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0714.1996.tb00191.x.


An international group of epidemiologists, clinicians and pathologists with a special interest in oral white lesions and their precancerous significance has reviewed earlier work on this topic and identified some of the problems associated with previous definitions, descriptions and classifications. Modifications to these definitions, descriptions and classifications have been proposed, accompanied by explanations of the reasons for identifying the need for changes to be made. Leukoplakia may be a provisional or definitive diagnosis dependent upon the circumstances of oral examination and the availability of other information. Guidelines are provided to assist in the application of the definitions of oral leukoplakia and illustrations depict the homogeneous and non-homogeneous clinical variants. Consideration is also given to the importance of a red component in a white lesion, or a lesion that is entirely red (erythroplakia). A new clinical staging procedure for oral leukoplakia is also proposed.

Publication types

  • Consensus Development Conference
  • Guideline
  • Practice Guideline
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Erythroplasia / classification
  • Erythroplasia / pathology
  • Humans
  • Leukoplakia, Oral / classification
  • Leukoplakia, Oral / pathology*
  • Mouth Neoplasms / classification
  • Mouth Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Plants, Toxic*
  • Precancerous Conditions / classification
  • Precancerous Conditions / pathology*
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Sweden
  • Tobacco*