In clinical rheumatology, the diagnosis of Chlamydia reactive arthritis is difficult because an incomplete form of the disease can closely resemble an undifferentiated seronegative mono/oligoarthritis. We investigated whether measuring specific isotypes of anti-Chlamydia antibodies in serum can improve the diagnosis, by comparing such antibody concentrations in the serum of patients with well-defined disease, i.e. Chlamydia trachomatis sexually acquired reactive arthritis (CT-SARA), with other arthritides. Antibody levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). When considering two different isotypes and their combination, the best sensitivity (63%) was obtained for IgM and/or IgA results with a specificity of 81%. The patients with CT-SARA and SARA had the highest levels of antibodies of all isotypes tested. It is concluded that, in our experimental conditions, only very high values of specific isotypes could indicate a diagnosis of Chlamydia reactive arthritis.