Dietary salt, nitrate and stomach cancer mortality in 24 countries. European Cancer Prevention (ECP) and the INTERSALT Cooperative Research Group

Int J Epidemiol. 1996 Jun;25(3):494-504. doi: 10.1093/ije/25.3.494.


Background: High salt and nitrate intake are considered as risk factors for stomach cancer, but little is known about possible interactions. This ecological study examines the respective importance of both factors for stomach cancer mortality at the population level using data obtained under standardized conditions and with biochemical analyses performed in the same laboratories.

Methods: Randomly selected 24-hour urine samples from 39 populations, sampled from 24 countries (N = 5756 people for sodium, 3303 for nitrate) were obtained from the INTERSALT study. Median sodium and nitrate levels were age- and sex-standardized between ages 20-49 years and averaged per country. Ecological correlation-regression analyses were done in relation to national stomach cancer mortality rates.

Results: The Pearson correlation of stomach cancer mortality with sodium for the 24 countries was: 0.70 in men and 0.74 in women (both P < 0.001) and with nitrate: 0.63 (P = 0.001) in men and (P < 0.005) in women. In multiple regression of stomach cancer mortality, using sodium and nitrate as independent variables the adjusted R2 was 0.61 in men and 0.54 in women (both P < 0.001). Addition of the interaction term (sodium x nitrate) to the previous model increased the adjusted R2 to 0.77 in men, and to 0.63 in women. The analysis of this model showed that the importance of nitrate as risk factor for stomach cancer mortality increased markedly with higher sodium levels. However, the relationship of stomach cancer mortality with sodium was always stronger than with nitrate.

Conclusions: Salt intake, measured as 24-hour urine sodium excretion, is likely the rate-limiting factor of stomach cancer mortality at the population level.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Diet*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Nitrates* / urine
  • Risk Factors
  • Sodium, Dietary* / urine
  • Stomach Neoplasms / epidemiology*


  • Nitrates
  • Sodium, Dietary