The present study examined the agreement between single and multiple sample plasma clearance of iohexol, a non-ionic contrast agent, in renal failure. Sixty-five patients with varying degree of renal insufficiency received 10 ml iohexol (300 mg I/ml) i.v. and plasma samples were collected four times during the following 3-24 h. Plasma-iodine concentrations were determined by X-ray fluorescence. Predicted creatinine clearance was used to choose one of the samples for determination of single sample clearance. A single plasma specimen collected at 4 h for GFR above 50 ml/min, at 7 h for GFR between 20 and 50 ml/min, and at 24 h for GFR below 20 ml/min gave values in good agreement with those based on a four sample slope clearance. No sign of nephrotoxicity was noted after administration of the contrast agent. It is concluded that single sample plasma clearance after single injection of iohexol gives a good estimate of GFR in renal failure and is advantageous in clinical practice.