T cell antigen receptor (TCR) stimulation induces tyrosine phosphorylation of many intracellular proteins, including the proto-oncogene Vav, which is expressed exclusively in hematopoietic and trophoblast cells. Vav is critical for lymphocyte development and activation. Overexpression of Vav in Jurkat T cells leads to potentiation of TCR-mediated IL-2 gene activation. However, the biochemical function of Vav is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the major induced tyrosine phosphoprotein associated with Vav is the hematopoietic cell-specific SLP-76. The Vav SH2 domain is required for this interaction and for TCR-mediated Vav tyrosine phosphorylation. Similar to Vav, overexpression of SLP-76 markedly potentiates TCR-mediated NF-AT and IL-2 gene activation. Furthermore, overexpression of both Vav and SLP-76 synergistically induces basal and TCR-stimulated NF-AT activation. These results suggest that a signaling complex containing Vav and SLP-76 plays an important role in lymphocyte activation.