A convenient sample of 24 patients was used to examine psychological response and quality of life (QOL) of patients undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT). The relationships among anxiety, depression, and quality also were examined. The study had a descriptive, correlational design. Instruments used to collect data were the Quality of Life Index (QLI), the Becks Depression Inventory, and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Data were collected 2 weeks before the patient's hospitalization for ABMT (baseline), 2 days before ABMT, and 5 and 20 days after ABMT. QOL and anxiety improved slightly after ABMT. Patients were significantly more depressed before ABMT (p < 0.05) than afterward. Analysis of QOL showed that health and functioning had the most negative impact on QOL, whereas family had the most positive impact on QOL. A strong negative relationship was found between depression and QOL (r = 0.79).