Patterns of anismus and the relation to biofeedback therapy

Dis Colon Rectum. 1996 Jul;39(7):768-73. doi: 10.1007/BF02054442.


Purpose: A study was undertaken to assess physiologic characteristics and clinical significance of anismus. Specifically, we sought to assess patterns of anismus and the relation of these findings to the success of therapy.

Methods: Sixty-eight patients were found to have anismus based on history and diagnostic criteria including anismus by defecography and at least one of three additional tests: anorectal manometry, electromyography, or colonic transit time study. Interpretation of defecography was based on the consensus of at least three of four observers. Anal canal hypertonia (n = 32) was defined when mean and maximum resting pressures were at least 1 standard deviation higher than those in 63 controls. There were two distinct defecographic patterns of anismus: Type A (n = 26), a flattened anorectal angle without definitive puborectalis indentation but a closed anal canal; Type B (n = 42), a clear puborectalis indentation, narrow anorectal angle, and closed anal canal. Outcomes of 57 patients who had electromyographybased biofeedback therapy were reported as either improved or unimproved at a mean follow-up of 23.7 (range, 6-62) months. These two types of anismus were compared with biofeedback outcome to assess clinical relevance.

Results: Patients with Type A anismus showed greater perineal descent at rest (mean, 5.1 vs. 3.5 cm; P < 0.01), greater dynamic descent between rest and evacuation (mean, 2.7 vs. 1.4 cm; P < 0.01), greater difference of anorectal angle between rest and evacuation (mean, 14.6 vs. -3.1 degrees; P < 0.001), higher mean resting pressure (mean, 77.1 vs. 62.8 mmHg; P < 0.05), lower mean squeeze pressure (58.8 vs. 80.7 mmHg; P < 0.05), and a higher incidence of anal canal hypertonia (69.2 vs. 33.3 percent; P < 0.01) than did patients with Type B anismus. Only 25 percent of patients who had Type A anismus with anal canal hypertonia were improved by biofeedback therapy. Conversely, 86 percent of patients with Type B anismus without anal canal hypertonia were successfully treated with biofeedback (P < 0.001; Fisher's exact test).

Conclusions: These two distinct physiologic patterns of anismus correlate with the success of biofeedback treatment. Therefore, knowledge of these patterns may help direct therapy.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Anal Canal / physiology*
  • Biofeedback, Psychology*
  • Constipation / physiopathology*
  • Constipation / therapy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Treatment Outcome