The mechanism of collagen cross-linking in diabetes: a puzzle nearing resolution

Diabetes. 1996 Jul;45 Suppl 3:S67-72. doi: 10.2337/diab.45.3.s67.


Considerable interest has been focused in recent years on the mechanism of collagen cross-linking by high glucose in vitro and in vivo. Experiments in both diabetic humans and in animals have shown that over time collagen becomes less soluble, less digestible by collagenase, more stable to heat-induced denaturation, and more glycated. In addition, collagen becomes more modified by advanced products of the Maillard reaction, i.e., immunoreactive advanced glycation end products and the glycoxidation markers carboxymethyllysine and pentosidine. Mechanistic studies have shown that collagen cross-linking in vitro can be uncoupled from glycation by the use of antioxidants and chelating agents. Experiments in the authors' laboratory revealed that approximately 50% of carboxymethyllysine formed in vitro originates from pathways other than oxidation of Amadori products, i.e., most likely the oxidation of Schiff base-linked glucose. In addition, the increase in thermal stability of rat tail tendons exposed to high glucose in vitro or in vivo was found to strongly depend on H2O2 formation. The final missing piece of the puzzle is that of the structure of the major cross-link. We speculate that it is a nonfluorescent nonultraviolet active cross-link between two lysine residues, which includes a fragmentation product of glucose linked in a nonreducible bond labile to both strong acids and bases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Collagen / chemistry
  • Collagen / metabolism*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / metabolism*
  • Glucose / chemistry
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / metabolism
  • Lysine / chemistry
  • Maillard Reaction
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase / metabolism


  • Glycation End Products, Advanced
  • Collagen
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase
  • Glucose
  • Lysine