Comparative analysis of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and operation for renal revascularization

Am J Kidney Dis. 1996 Apr;27(4):496-503. doi: 10.1016/s0272-6386(96)90159-6.


Contemporary patients requiring renal revascularization often have diffuse atherosclerosis, and increasingly undergo intervention for salvage of renal function rather than control of hypertension alone. Risk-benefit analyses and outcome data are difficult to obtain, since few reports have analyzed a modern, unselected series of consecutive patients subjected to renal revascularization by surgical as well as interventional techniques. We reviewed our 5-year experience with 76 consecutive renal revascularizations in 63 patients. Indications for intervention were hypertension and renal salvage, 60 percent (n = 38); hypertension, 24 percent (n = 15); renal salvage, 9.5 percent (n = 6); and other, 6.5 percent (n = 4). Ninety-four percent (n = 59) of patients had atherosclerotic occlusive disease of the renal arteries. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was initially performed on 18 renal arteries in 16 patients, of whom 56 percent (n = 9) subsequently required surgical reconstruction. Fifty-eight surgical reconstructions were performed in 56 patients and consisted of aortorenal bypass (n = 27), aortorenal endarterectomy (n = 18), and extra-anatomic bypass (n = 13). Concomitant aortic replacement was required in 57 percent (n = 32) of patients. Preoperative risk factors and operative indications did not differ between the PTA and surgical reconstruction groups. Morbidity and mortality rates associated with PTA were 33 percent and 4.8 percent, respectively, while for surgical treatment the morbidity rate was 7 percent and the mortality rate 5.3 percent (P = NS). Functional improvement was achieved in 74 percent of surgically treated patients compared with 22 percent of PTA-treated patients (P < 0.01). Actuarial renal artery primary patency at 48 months was 81 percent for the surgery group and 17 percent for the PTA group (P < 0.01). Aortorenal bypass, endarterectomy, and extra-anatomic bypass were equally efficacious (P > 0.05). The results of surgical reconstruction are excellent, offering more durable patency and functional improvement than PTA, without increased risk. The operation should be tailored to fit the individual patient's disease, since the results of endarterectomy and bypass procedures are equivalent.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Angioplasty, Balloon* / statistics & numerical data
  • Arteriosclerosis / epidemiology
  • Arteriosclerosis / therapy
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Female
  • Fibromuscular Dysplasia / epidemiology
  • Fibromuscular Dysplasia / therapy
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Renovascular / epidemiology
  • Hypertension, Renovascular / therapy
  • Life Tables
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Renal Artery / surgery*
  • Renal Artery Obstruction / epidemiology
  • Renal Artery Obstruction / therapy
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome