Sleep disturbance and psychiatric disorders: a longitudinal epidemiological study of young adults

Biol Psychiatry. 1996 Mar 15;39(6):411-8. doi: 10.1016/0006-3223(95)00188-3.


In a longitudinal epidemiological study of young adults, we estimated the association between sleep disturbance and psychiatric disorders, cross-sectionally and prospectively. A random sample of 1200 was drawn from all 21-30-year-old members of a large health maintenance organization (HMO) in Michigan; 1007 were interviewed in 1989 and 979 were reinterviewed in 1992. Lifetime prevalence of insomnia alone was 16.6%, of hypersomnia alone, 8.2%, and of insomnia plus hypersomnia, 8%. The gender-adjusted relative risk for new onset of major depression during the follow-up period in persons with history of insomnia at baseline was 4.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2-7.0) and in persons with baseline history of hypersomnia, 2.9 (95% CI 1.5-5.6). When history of other prior depressive symptoms (e.g., psychomotor retardation or agitation, suicidal ideation) was controlled for, prior insomnia remained a significant predictor of subsequent major depression. Complaints of 2 weeks or more of insomnia nearly every night might be a useful marker of subsequent onset of major depression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Comorbidity
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Depressive Disorder / diagnosis
  • Depressive Disorder / epidemiology
  • Depressive Disorder / psychology
  • Disorders of Excessive Somnolence / diagnosis
  • Disorders of Excessive Somnolence / epidemiology
  • Disorders of Excessive Somnolence / psychology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Mental Disorders / diagnosis
  • Mental Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Mental Disorders / psychology
  • Michigan / epidemiology
  • Prospective Studies
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / diagnosis
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / epidemiology
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / psychology
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / diagnosis
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / psychology