Varicella (chicken pox) is a common viral infection in children and generally runs a benign course. However, in adults, and especially in immunocompromised subjects such as those on immunosuppressant therapy or with AIDS, varicella infection is particularly severe and is associated with the formation of hemorrhagic skin lesions and visceral involvement. These patients are at an increased risk of developing varicella hepatitis, which frequently results in fulminant hepatic failure and death. In the present report, we describe for the first time the course of disease and the histological appearance of varicella hepatitis in a patient infected with the human T cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) I and II; these viruses have many characteristics in common with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Our patient had a relatively benign illness, suggesting that varicella infection in the presence of HTLVI and II may not run as severe a course as it does in patients with HIV infection.