Measurement of low-frequency respiratory impedance in infants

Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996 Jul;154(1):161-6. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.154.1.8680673.


Low-frequency respiratory impedance (Zrs) data permit the separate estimation of the mechanical properties of the airways and the tissues, but they are difficult to collect in humans because of the need for apneic conditions. We exploited the apneic phase produced by invoking the Hering-Breuer reflex with end-inspiratory airway occlusion in five sedated infants aged 9 to 16 mo. A computer-controlled pump and solenoid valves were used to inflate the supine infants through a face mask to a transrespiratory pressure of 20 cm H2O and to affect the airway occlusion. A loudspeaker-in-box system was connected to the mask through a side-arm, and small-amplitude pseudorandom oscillations containing 23 frequency components between 0.5 and 20.75 Hz were applied for 6 s. Four consecutive measurements were made in each infant, and the averaged Zrs spectra were evaluated on the basis of a model containing the frequency-independent resistance (Raw) and inertance (law) of the airways, and the viscous damping (G) and elastance (H) parameters of the constant-phase compartment of the chest wall and parenchymal tissues. The measured Zrs values were consistent with the model up to 15 Hz, and the average fitting error was 0.89 +/- 0.11 (SD) cm H2O.s/L. The following parameter values were obtained: Raw = 10.0 +/- 2.1 cm H2O.s/L, law = 0.061 +/- 0.014 cm H2O.s2/L, G = 28.6 +/- 4.9 cm H2O/L, H = 141 +/- 55 cm H2O/L. The tissue hysteresivity (G/H) values were 0.218 +/- 0.061. Our results indicate that, in short apneic periods evoked by the Hering-Breuer reflex, reliable low-frequency Zrs data can be collected to partition the tissue and airway impedances in sedated infants.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Airway Resistance / physiology
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Pulmonary Ventilation / physiology*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Respiratory Function Tests / methods*