Viral, host and environmental risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective study in Haimen City, China

Intervirology. 1995;38(3-4):155-61. doi: 10.1159/000150426.


To identify specific environmental, viral, and genetic risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the interaction of such factors, we are conducting a prospective study in a high-incidence area of China. Questionnaires were completed and biosamples collected by 60,984 men ages 30-64 years, at study entry. Within 2.5 years, 183 deaths from HCC had occurred. Each HCC case was matched with 5 controls and compared for items on the questionnaire. In addition to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the significant risk factors were: occupation (peasant), corn consumption (in the 1970s), family history of HCC, and history of an episode of acute hepatitis as an adult. HBV, consumption of aflatoxins, a genetic factor, and possibly a second hepatitis virus infection contribute to the risk of HCC.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / epidemiology
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology*
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / mortality
  • China / epidemiology
  • Disease Susceptibility
  • Environmental Exposure
  • Hepatitis B / complications*
  • Humans
  • Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Liver Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Liver Neoplasms / mortality
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking
  • Tumor Virus Infections