The purpose of this paper is to present results from methodologies used in our laboratory that are targeted toward identifying specific brain injury thresholds. Results from studying one form of brain injury, diffuse axonal injury, are presented in this report. Physical models, or surrogates, of the skull-brain complex are used to estimate the relationship between inertial loading and brain deformation. A porcine model of diffuse axonal injury, developed with information from these physical models and earlier in vitro tissue modeling studies, is used to correlate histologic and radiologic evidence of axonal injury to predicted regions of injury from the experimental and theoretical analysis. These results form the basis for developing improved diffuse brain injury tolerance levels, as well as identifying new means of diagnostic and treatment techniques for diffuse axonal injury.