Tissue factor expression during human and mouse development

Am J Pathol. 1996 Jul;149(1):101-13.


In the adult organism the cellular distribution of tissue factor (TF) expression corresponds to biological boundary layers forming a hemostatic barrier ready to activate blood coagulation after tissue injury. Whether TF expression might also play a role in development is unknown. To determine the significance of TF in ontogenesis, we examined the pattern of TF expression in mouse development and compared it with the distribution of TF in human post-implantation embryos and fetuses of corresponding gestational age. At early embryonic periods of murine (6.5 and 7.5 pc) and human (stage 5) development, there was strong expression of TF in both ectodermal and entodermal cells. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that TF mRNA and protein were expressed widely in epithelial areas with high levels of morphogenic activity during organogenesis. Staining for TF was seen during ontogenetic development in tissues such as epidermis, myocardium, bronchial epithelium, and hepatocytes, which express TF in the adult organism. Surprisingly, during renal development and in adults, expression of TF differed between humans and mice. In humans, maturing stage glomeruli were stained for TF whereas in mice, TF was absent from glomeruli but was present in the epithelia of tubular segments. In neuroepithelial cells, there was a substantial expression of TF. Moreover, there was robust TF expression in tissues such as skeletal muscle and pancreas, which do not express it in the adult. In contrast, expression of the physiological ligand for TF, factor VII, was not detectable during early stages of human embryogenesis using immunohistochemistry. The temporal and spatial pattern of TF expression during murine and human development supports the contention that TF serves as an important morphogenic factor during embryogenesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Brain / embryology
  • Brain Chemistry
  • Cardiovascular System / chemistry
  • Cardiovascular System / embryology
  • Digestive System / chemistry
  • Digestive System / embryology
  • Embryo, Mammalian / chemistry*
  • Embryonic Development
  • Embryonic and Fetal Development*
  • Epithelium / chemistry
  • Epithelium / embryology
  • Female
  • Fetus / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Kidney Glomerulus / chemistry
  • Kidney Glomerulus / embryology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Muscle, Skeletal / chemistry
  • Muscle, Skeletal / embryology
  • Pregnancy
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • Species Specificity
  • Thromboplastin / analysis*
  • Thromboplastin / genetics


  • RNA, Messenger
  • Thromboplastin