Using specific ELISA kits, we investigated the secretion of cytokines in five human prostate carcinoma cell lines: ALVA 31, DU145, LNCaP, ND1 and PC3. Three of the five cell lines investigated secreted granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); GM-CSF was not identified in ALVA31 or LNCaP. In addition, we have shown that conditioned media of DU145, ND1 and PC3 stimulated proliferation of the GM-CSF-dependent cell line MO7e indicating that these cells secrete biologically active GM-CSF. By flow cytometric analysis we determined that all five cell lines expressed the alpha-subunit of the GM-CSF receptor on the cell surface but only ALVA31 expressed both the alpha- and beta-subunits of the GM-CSF receptor. Varying concentrations of GM-CSF did not stimulate the proliferation rate of any of the prostate carcinoma cell lines. Thus, there does not appear to be autocrine loop of GM-CSF-induced proliferation. However, the expression of E-cadherin and endoglin (CD105) was modulated under GM-CSF treatment in ALVA31. In addition, GM-CSF decreased the level of soluble CD44 in ND1. These results suggest that the GM-CSF receptor alpha-subunit may play a role in metabolic activity of prostate cancer.