The Neurospora crassa Asm-1+ (ascospore maturation 1) gene encodes an abundant nucleus-localized protein required for formation of female structures and for ascospore maturation. Deletion mutants of Asm-1+ are "ascus-dominant," i.e., when crossed to wild type, neither Asm-1+ nor Asm-1 delta spores mature. To explain this behavior, we considered three models: an effect of reduced dosage of the gene product, failure of internuclear communication, and failure of transvection (regulation dependent on pairing of alleles). We found that for proper regulation of subsequent sexual sporulation, Asm-1+ must be in proximity, probably paired, to its allelic counterpart in the zygote: i.e., transvection must occur. Disruption of pairing causes failure of ascospore progeny to mature. Transvection in Neurospora, unlike in Drosophila, occurs immediately before meiosis, and can be demonstrated between wild-type alleles.