In three patients, two women of 37 and 58 and a man of 68 years, a papillomatous lesion was incidentally detected in the distal part of the oesophagus. Microscopically a squamous papilloma was seen with parakeratosis and in two patients poikilocytosis, indicating an infection with human papilloma virus (HPV). The lesions were removed endoscopically, in one patient with laser photocoagulation. Squamous papillomas of the oesophagus are benign tumours with a very low incidence. The pathogenesis still remains unclear. Some authors suggest local irritation as a possible mechanism. On the other hand there is growing evidence of an aetiological role of HPV. In several studies the presence of viral antigen or DNA has been demonstrated. These papillomas may undergo malignant transformation, which means that they are best removed preventively.