Objective: Our purpose was to study the correlation between maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin levels measured at 15 to 18 weeks of amenorrhea and pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, and small-for-gestational-age neonates.
Study design: Prospective trisomy 21 human chorionic gonadotropin screening data from 5776 patients were examined in a retrospective investigation of the relationship between human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-induced hypertension (234 cases), preeclampsia (34 cases), and small-for-gestational-age neonates (238 cases).
Results: Maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (multiples of the median) was higher in the three populations with pathologic disorders. This difference was statistically significant in patients with small-for-gestational-age neonates (p < 0.0163) and preeclampsia (p < 0.0001) but not in those with pregnancy-induced hypertension. In the preeclampsia subgroup, with a cutoff value of 2 multiples of the median, specificity was 32% and sensitivity was 10%; with a cutoff value of 1 multiples of the median, specificity was 100% and sensitivity was 50%.
Conclusion: High maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin levels at 15 weeks are related to a risk for preeclampsia. Depending on the human chorionic gonadotropin cutoff value, 32% or 100% of preeclampsia patients would be selected. The usefulness of preventive aspirin treatment from the fifteenth week needs more investigation in a larger multicenter study of preeclampsia.